Integrated Reasoning

Island Museum analyzes historical artifacts using one or more techniques described below—all but one of which is performed by an outside laboratory—to obtain specific information about an object’s creation. For each type of material listed, the museum uses only the technique described:

Animal teeth or bones: The museum performs  isotope ratio mass spectrometry  (IRMS) in-house to determine the ratios of chemical elements present, yielding clues as to the animal’s diet and the minerals in its water supply.

Metallic ores or alloys:  Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  (ICP-MS) is used to determine the ratios of traces of metallic isotopes present, which differ according to where the sample was obtained.

Plant matter: While they are living, plants absorb carbon-14, which decays at a predictable rate after death; thus  radiocarbon dating  is used to estimate a plant’s date of death.

Fired-clay objects:  Thermoluminescence  (TL)  dating  is used to provide an estimate of the time since clay was fired to create the object.

For each of the following results of tests performed on Kaxna artifacts, select  Yes  if, based on the museum’s assumptions, the result confirms that the artifact was created during the time of the Kaxna Kingdom. Otherwise, select No.

Bone necklace shown by IRMS to have element ratios characteristic of artifacts known to be from the Kaxna Kingdom
Fired-clay jug dated to 1050 BC by TL dating
Copper box shown by ICP-MS to have the same ratio of trace metals found in the copper mines of Kaxna

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