Comparing Gender Parity Around the Globe

How do world nations compare in regards to gender equality? There are many positive socio-economic effects to having an inclusive workforce where a high number of female participants are on equal footing with men, including faster economic growth and increased company profits. Click on a country for an overview of their history and some key statistics – and read the micro-profiles of MBA alumnae who have leveraged the strength of a graduate business school education to help advance personally and professionally.

We’ve looked in detail at over 30 countries around the world, collating data from a number of sources including the UN, and our own GMAT exam uptake figures, to see how each nation stacks up.

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Women
Men

Argentina

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1947:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

39.51%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

No data

Education

Literacy Rate

98.13%
Women

98.04%
Men

2015

Years of schooling

No data

Australia

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1962:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1880:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

32.74%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

20.1%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

12.19 yrs
12.22 yrs

2015

We interview Amelia Zaina

Amelia Zaina

Director, Emerging Markets division for Asia, American Express

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

It’s okay if you don’t know exactly what you want to do (as a career) ... I’m fortunate that my broader undergraduate education gave me the ability to move industries and roles, which enabled me to build different skills and expertise from each and refine my current career aspirations.

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

I have been fortunate to work for companies with active gender equality programs, so from an organization perspective, no it hasn’t. Also, I have maintained active male mentor relationships, which have strengthened my level of command and confidence. This has helped in situations where I feel out of my depth or are leading discussions in a room full of male senior leaders.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

I hope that in 10 years time, we are not still having the gender equality and salary quality debate. Trends show that women in leadership roles are increasing, which is positive, but the change is moving slowly. I anticipate that in 2025, the gender split will be closer to 50:50 and for women, having the same opportunities and outcome in business as men, will not be a luxury, it will be the norm.

Belgium

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1948:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1883:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

41.43%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

27.9%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

11.77 yrs
12.09 yrs

2015

We interview Micheline Wille

Micheline Wille

VP Medical Affairs Europe, Raptor Pharmaceuticals (studied at Vlerick Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

My education has been crucial in my career choices and opportunities ... It is only when I decided to leave the clinical environment that it became clear that I needed to broaden my knowledge in order to be in pole position for the best opportunities in the health care industry.

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

To some extent, yes - but it's more our own fault, I think. It has been demonstrated, for example, that women in general are less convinced that they are good candidates for promotions ... vs their male counterparts ... However, male careers are very often still prioritised.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

I am not in favor of quotas - it is ultimately up to women to stand and speak up. It should be a personal - not forced - choice. Things only work if you really want them for yourself, not to please somebody else (although some encouragement might be needed).

Brazil

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1932:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1879:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

11.28%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

7.1%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

92.06%
Women

91.37%
Men

2014

Years of schooling

7.66 yrs
7.21 yrs

2014

Canada

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1951:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1880:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

31.09%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

20.5%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

We interview Sonja Rossteuscher

Sonja Rossteuscher

Managing Partner, Triple S Advisory & Consulting (University of St Gallen)

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

Before having children, I would have said that the only real effect being a woman had on my career was that I was one of the only women in the room ... When I got pregnant with my first child, the tables turned a bit. My boss at the time was only interested to have me back in the role if I could return eight weeks after giving birth.

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

I would tell my earlier self to be more forgiving with my women-staff members who had young families. I demanded a lot (too much?!) of them, and didn’t appreciate them as much as I should have!

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

I would like to think that it would be easier for women and particularly for working mothers to have equal opportunities. However, I am unsure that much will change ... Women cannot be on an equal footing with men when it comes to what they can give to their careers during their peak working years.

Chile

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1949:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1877:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

22.73%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

8.5%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

96.16%
Women

96.39%
Men

2013

Years of schooling

9.91 yrs
10.19 yrs

2013

China

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1949:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1920:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

24.9%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

9.2%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

We interview Kancy Xu

Kancy Xu

C-suite, Manulife (UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

My education guided my career choices and created many career opportunities for me. Without my education, I would have chosen different things to do, and I believe I would have much less opportunities to develop myself.

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

Not really. I am living in Shanghai, the most liberal city in China, and women can get the same good education and career opportunities, and the percentage of professional women is also the highest in China.

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

I believe I would give myself longer time to develop my skills, especially interpersonal skills, when starting out in my career.

Egypt

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1956:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1971:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

14.93%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

No data

Education

Literacy Rate

67.18%
Women

82.63%
Men

2013

Years of schooling

No data

Finland

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1906:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

42%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

29.2%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

We interview Sara Montonen

Sara Montonen

CEMS MIM & MSc Economics Student at Aalto University School of Business

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

I think my family life and culture have definitely impacted my career. It is very important to me that I have a supportive family who encouraged me to pursue my dreams despite any setbacks. I think my culture has made me hard working and has taught me perseverance.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

I think in this respect the Finnish government is doing a good job. In general though, governments can help women in business by making more affordable, high quality childcare available. In many countries this seems to be one of the biggest obstacles women face.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

I think 10 years from now we will live in a more gender neutral place and it will be a lot easier for women to get to the top. I hope that in 10 years gender will no longer be an issue preventing anyone from achieving what they want.

France

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1944:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1880:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

35.35%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

34%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

11.11 yrs
11.55 yrs

2015

We interview Emilie Cousteau

Emilie Cousteau

CEO, One World Lingerie (INSEAD)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

In two contradictory ways, one positive and one negative. The negative one: when your mind is formatted to go to the best schools for the intellectual elite... you find it difficult to get out of that track. Education did not teach me to think outside the box. The positive aspect: the networking, the opportunities, the international aspects offered by business school.

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

Have fun, although I was actually having fun. I was passionate and totally dedicated. I just wasn’t feeling confident enough to leave when it was no longer satisfactory ... If you are not enjoying it anymore, feel free and believe you’re free to move on. Don’t be scared.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

Not sure they should encourage women in particular. I feel that today in education there is a good balance between male and female participation. It’s more in the corporate world, where salary equality should be enforced.

Germany

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1918:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1900:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

31.49%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

21.1%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

13.66 yrs
14.45 yrs

2015

We interview Uta Anders

Uta Anders

CFO & Member of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp System Engineering (ESMT)

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

No, it does not. What has a certain effect is my German background. I see myself as a typical German: being systematic and liking order. And I also believe that these are helpful characteristics in your career. To that extent, culture may have had an impact.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

1) Provide infrastructure for mothers. I was born in East Germany and there it was normal for a woman to work even with young children. That was only possible because the women had the support as there were kindergartens. 2) Supporting the image in the society that a working mum is not a bad mum.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

I hope that in 10 years from now we will not speak any more about quota, being a woman in business etc. All that should count is performance.

Greece

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1952:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1890:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

18.33%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

No data

Education

Literacy Rate

96.23%
Women

98.08%
Men

2011

Years of schooling

10.5 yrs
11.01 yrs

2015

India

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1950:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1879:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

11.83%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

11.2%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

59.28%
Women

78.88%
Men

2011

Years of schooling

4.11 yrs
6.65 yrs

2011

We interview Rashmi Rungta

Rashmi Rungta

IT/CRM Programme Manager/Director, Praja Controls & Systems (London Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

My education has prompted me to take on much bolder steps and try out new avenues that I would have been hesitant to take on earlier. I still have not realised my full potential or aspirations but am working towards it.

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

Absolutely. I come from a very male-oriented culture and country. Being the youngest of 3 siblings and the only sister has not made it any easier. My family has supported me all along but also questioned and challenged me at the same time. Things are improving but it will not change overnight.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

The Government can introduce ... programmes to help propel careers of interested women in the industry ... irrespective of age and nationality ... Visa and immigration has been much spoken about recently, government needs to be smarter on this and allow sponsorship for deserving senior women candidates from Ivy League Schools, as diversity is also important here.

Israel

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1948:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

27.5%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

17.6%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

12.96 yrs
12.96 yrs

2015

Italy

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1945:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1876:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

35.58%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

30.8%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

98.57%
Women

99.14%
Men

2011

Years of schooling

9.96 yrs
10.38 yrs

2015

We interview Silvia Agrestini

Silvia Agrestini

Group Account Director, Spring Studios (London Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

Less than I thought it would: I studied physiological psychology as an undergad and now I work in fashion advertising. After my undergrad I did an MA in Graphic Design then an MBA. Those helped me to get where I am now, but I never had this as a plan in my 20s.

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

Unfortunately sexism is still a reality, but the biggest challenge for women is to overcome their own internalised sexism ... It is time for women to be credited for their efforts and results. Let's be less shy about our achievements.

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

Since I became a mother, I also became more conscious of my time. I now always make sure my time is used in the most efficient way possible and I am a lot less tolerant of people not coming prepared to meetings ... etc. I also believe it is a shame to see many women senior executives that have to choose between family and career.

Japan

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1947:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1913:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

13.72%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

3.5%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

Lebanon

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1952:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

3.13%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

No data

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

Malaysia

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1957:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

13.1%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

13.9%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

We interview Sharifah Bakar Ali

Sharifah Bakar Ali

Head, South East Asia Business Development, Gatehouse Bank Kuala Lumpur Representative Office (Cambridge Judge Business School)

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

Both positively and adversely. Business development work requires patience and perseverance, virtues which, in my opinion, women naturally possess ... These attributes work to my advantage when leading teams in executing transactions ... On the flip side, I can get emotional at times, especially when I have to hand over certain tasks or roles to other colleagues.

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

Yes, as these aspects shape one’s character, which is usually reflected in one’s professional behaviour ... I have been taught values that call for a deep sense of accountability within me. These principles have made me conscious of the fact that I will be held responsible for all my actions and deeds, one way or another.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

Women will prioritise work over starting a family ... I foresee women becoming less and less emotional and functioning more and more like their male counterparts as they mould themselves into pragmatic leaders.

Mexico

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1947:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1887:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

41.4%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

5.7%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

93.49%
Women

95.55%
Men

2015

Years of schooling

8.41 yrs
8.82 yrs

2015

We interview Maria Luisa Ortiz

Maria Luisa Ortiz

Payroll Product Development Director, BBVA Bancomer (IPADE Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

A lot. Being an MBA graduate has certainly opened doors for me as a professional, and it has also opened my view of how business is done. I don't think I would be in my current position if I weren't an MBA graduate.

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

Yes, cultural and family background affect the decisions I make and the way I see things ... That's why my values and communication with my family and close friends are so important: sometimes I have to make life decisions that are not traditional, such as leaving my home town and not getting married.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

Hopefully we will have the same chances as men to get to key positions, but mostly we will leave our own fears, personal barriers and guilt behind to become truly equal.

Netherlands

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1919:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1876:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

35.56%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

26.2%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

11.83 yrs
12.47 yrs

2015

We interview Elizabeth van Geerestein

Elizabeth van Geerestein

CEO, Papillon & Partners (Rotterdam School of Management)

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

Believe you’re good enough and you have got what it takes to make it. You’re as good as the boys. Don’t waste a second feeding your insecurities. Kindle your passions; every day pursue your dreams. Keep going, don’t let setbacks deter you.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

Reward and highlight profile companies that promote women to senior positions. Showcase and profile women of different backgrounds and ethnicities succeeding in business. Don’t forget the boys, we need empowered men and empowered women, otherwise it’s out of balance.

What do you think it will be like for women in business ten years from now?

I have three daughters and I am trusting they will start their careers in a world that radically recognises the potential and value that both women and men bring to the workforce.

Peru

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1955:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1908:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

27.69%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

No data

Education

Literacy Rate

91.19%
Women

97.19%
Men

2016

Years of schooling

8.62 yrs
9.61 yrs

2015

Philippines

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1937:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

29.11%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

10.9%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

96.79%
Women

96.01%
Men

2013

Years of schooling

9.32 yrs
8.98 yrs

2013

Russia

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1918:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1905:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

16.13%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

6.5%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

We interview Olga Steidl

Olga Steidl

Business Development & Investor Relationship Consultant, Olga Steidl Digital (Graduate School of Management, St Petersburg University)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

A lot. I was able not only to study my core subject IT Management, but also attend marketing track courses. By combining these two, I created a unique niche for myself - marketing IT products.

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

Yes. For a man it takes a lot of energy and knowledge to stand out in a meeting with men only in the room, but you are in a better position being the only female. After the attention is yours, the expectations are high though.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

I hope 10 years from now people will stop asking this question, because it automatically implies something is wrong about being a woman in business.

South Africa

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1994:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

41.52%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

19.9%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

93.41%
Women

95.4%
Men

2015

Years of schooling

10.09 yrs
10.52 yrs

2015

We interview Dudu Msomi

Dudu Msomi

CEO, Busara Leadership Partners (Gordon Institute of Business Science)

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

Include accounting in my degree with an option to continue if I wanted to. I did love accounting, but specialist subjects weren't offered at the school I attended. Though I have done accounting in my studies, many seem to value accountants in business. It gives you an edge even if you are not a well-rounded business person.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

The will to change rests with business leaders, who have the option to transform the business environment. The South African government has opted for the carrot rather than the stick. The reticence to change the patriarchal society is within business and ultimately you can’t legislate values. Business has a lot of soul-searching to do.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

My vision is of a world, not just South Africa, that has ceased to see and treat women as second class citizens ... I look forward to a world that evaluates one’s ability based on the content of the brain rather than physical differences, which none of us have control over.

South Korea

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1948:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

17%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

4.1%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

Spain

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1931:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1910:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

38.64%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

16.1%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

97.7%
Women

98.84%
Men

2016

Years of schooling

9.76 yrs
10.07 yrs

2015

We interview Sofia Benjumea

Sofia Benjumea

Co-Founder & CEO, Spain Startup The South Summit (IE Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

The part of my education which has influenced my career the most has been studying in a French system, in which they teach you to think not to memorize. My family has always encouraged me to follow my dreams by working hard and aiming high.

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

Of course. I am a mother of a two year old, a wife and a daughter and it is not easy to find the balance. Only the support from close family allows me to keep working on what I love.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

Encourage flexibility, facilitate office spaces with nurseries, support women entrepreneurs whilst they are being mums.

Sweden

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1921:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1873:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

43.55%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

33.6%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

12.45 yrs
12.24 yrs

2015

Switzerland

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1971:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1867:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

29.27%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

14.6%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

13.3 yrs
14.18 yrs

2015

We interview Melanie Areggar

Melanie Areggar

Head of Business Unit, InSphero Diagnostics (University of St Gallen)

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

Yes definitely, especially in my previous jobs. It was much harder to get more responsibility and be promoted. One had to work twice as hard - at least sometimes it felt that way.

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

Be more self-confident, believe in your strengths, and say "no" more often.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

Lead by example and have more women in top positions.

Thailand

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1932:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1918:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

4.8%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

12.7%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

91.19%
Women

94.66%
Men

2015

Years of schooling

8.15 yrs
8.5 yrs

2016

We interview Atcha Lamlertpanya

Atcha Lamlertpanya

Associate, Phatra Securities Plc (Cambridge Judge Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

Without my undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering, I feel that most people would assume I am inadequate to work in a male-dominant industry such as engineering or investment banking, both of which I have worked in. I receive more credit once I disclose that I have an engineering degree and graduated from the University of Cambridge.

Does your culture, family life, and religion have an effect on your career?

In my culture, I feel that society expects women to play a certain role (taking care of the children, cooking, cleaning, etc.) ... For example, women will most likely have to forego demanding or time-consuming careers ... I feel that men can have demanding careers while still being successful with their family lives.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

Personally, I believe it comes down to the way we educate our children. If our children grow up in a society where people believe that certain jobs are meant to be for male only or that it is an uncommon thing to have a female leader, then they will grow up with the same belief.

Turkey

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1930:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1926:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

14.57%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

8.6%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

92.65%
Women

98.58%
Men

2015

Years of schooling

7.24 yrs
8.96 yrs

2014

We interview Ahu Sayarer Güner

Ahu Sayarer Güner

Strategy Execution Manager, Ericsson (Middle East) (Koç University)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

I believe I increased my chances working as a non-technical person in a high-end technology company by attending Turkey's Koc Executive MBA Program ... I differentiate myself as a business-minded person who works in the strategy and performance excellence area of a sales organisation. I gained a real cross-disciplinary perspective.

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

Still work hard but work less, work smarter, allocate much more time and dedicate much more energy for networking and personal and social relations.

Do you think there is anything the government can do to help encourage women in business?

Firstly, put quality standards for equal opportunities and salary system audits between men and women in place. Provide advantages for high scoring companies. Secondly, retirement conditions can be improved. Finally, more opportunities like remote working and part-time work can be introduced. Motherhood leave can be prolonged.

United Kingdom

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1928:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

1876:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

28.52%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

28.8%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

12.6 yrs
12.81 yrs

2014

We interview Michelle Wright

Michelle Wright

Founder and CEO, Cause4 (Ashridge Business School)

How much has your education influenced your career choices and opportunities?

The MBA at Ashridge was the key ... The fact that I had a supportive faculty and the work that we focussed on throughout the MBA - from marketing to strategy - meant that I felt more able to plan the first months of my business, Cause4.

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

I now spend a lot of time supporting other female entrepreneurs. The further I develop my business the more I realise that often females are less confident and less assured in how to grow and scale a business. Sadly, often it can be other female business people that exacerbate this.

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

Seek out 2 or 3 mentors that you admire early on, that can guide you and give you confidence to move forward. It’s role models and people that can provide critical insight that make the difference in how quickly and robustly you can move forward in your career.

United States

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1920:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

19.96%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

16.6%
2015

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

13.54 yrs
13.5 yrs

2015

We interview Tayo Jackson

Tayo Jackson

Enterprise Sales Technology Strategist, Microsoft (Darden School of Business, UVA)

Do you feel that being a woman has affected your career?

Absolutely. I am a woman in tech, an industry largely dominated by men ... There are many ways that being a woman has made how I do my job different from how a man would but I have always just viewed it as my own unique experience, not at all as a negative experience.

If you could go back in time, what piece of advice would you give to yourself when starting out in your career?

Be your own advocate." I began my career in medical device sales at the age of 21. It felt safe to be more passive and quiet being a young female in the role, but I know now that young people should trust their ability to add value to an organization.

What do you think it will be like for women in business 10 years from now?

Technology is expanding the opportunity for women to access information and learning resources. In the future, I expect to see a large increase in the percentage of female business owners and Fortune 500 female senior leadership. I believe businesses are really making progress in making the work environment a supportive place for the work/life balance and I am looking forward to seeing the amazing strides women will make over the next decade.

Vietnam

Women's Rights

The year that women won the right to vote in national elections on a universal and equal basis, and the year that women were first admitted to universities on equal terms.

1946:
Voting equality

1800
1900
2000

:
Admitted to university

Women in Power

Women in Parliament

26.72%
Lower house or combined houses of national parliaments June 2018

Women on Boards

No data

Education

Literacy Rate

No data

Years of schooling

No data

How Many Women Want to Study Business?

Number of women and men who took the GMAT exam in each country in 2017

Argentina

101337

Australia

249548

Belgium

113345

Brazil

8221934

Canada

24203663

Chile

100514

China

4627422617

Egypt

169360

Finland

145146

France

10801705

Germany

14242792

Greece

299569

India

992922585

Israel

508901

Italy

6151729

Lebanon

284525

Malaysia

228244

Mexico

4431081

Netherlands

5681079

Peru

316625

Philippines

241231

Russia

937915

South Africa

276401

South Korea

11922484

Spain

362937

Sweden

324442

Switzerland

157386

Thailand

1015774

Turkey

470582

United Kingdom

5141150

United States

3100848840

Vietnam

1085628